## Introduction ๐

We recently discussed the basics of **Normal Distribution** and its distinctive features. It’s time to apply that theory and gain hands-on experience.

In this post, you’ll learn how to:

- Create normal distribution using
**Python**and**SciPy**. - Generate
**samples**of a normally distributed variable. - Calculate
**percentiles**and find**probabilities**for specific values. - Plot
**histogram**,**density curve**, and area under the curve.

## Normal Distribution Using SciPy ๐

SciPy’s **stats** module provides a large number of statistics functions. The class **norm** from this module implements normal distribution.

Let’s explore this class using an example.

Photo Credit: bdougherty

Emperor penguins are the tallest among all the penguin species. Suppose their height is normally distributed with a **mean** of **40 inches** and a **standard deviation** of **5 inches**.

Let’s use the class **norm** to create the height distribution. The class takes mean and standard deviation as the inputs:

```
# load scipy's statistics module
from scipy import stats
# Emperor penguins height statistics (in inches)
mean = 40
standard_deviation = 5
# Create normal distribution using the 'norm' class
# loc - specifies the mean
# scale - specifies the standard deviation
height_distribution = stats.norm(
loc=mean,
scale=standard_deviation
)
```

You can use the returned object (** height_distribution**) to perform various operations related to normal distribution. We’ll look at some of the most popular ones.

## Random Sample Using `rvs()`

๐

Suppose you want a sample of 20 height measurements selected at random. You can do that using **norm’s rvs()** method:

```
# Generate a sample of 20 random penguin heights
sample = height_distribution.rvs(size=20)
sample.round(2)
```

```
array([36.82, 42.66, 44.95, 36.88, 47.34, 42.03, 46.49,
26.93, 46.78, 49.37, 39.51, 42.82, 40.85, 43.91,
44.33, 39.7 , 36.57, 40.86, 33.53, 42.64])
```

The sample heights seem reasonable. But is **rvs()** creating normally distributed values? To confirm, let’s generate a larger sample of 3,000 measurements and plot a **histogram**:

```
### Generate 3000 heights measurements
# height_distribution is an instance of 'norm' class
# Use its method rvs() to get the sample
sample = height_distribution.rvs(size=3000)
```

```
### Plot sample heights as histogram
# import matplotlib and seaborn for visualization
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
# Use seaborn style and increase font size
sns.set_theme(style='ticks', font_scale=1.5)
# set figure dimensions
plt.figure(figsize=(12, 6))
# Plot histogram
# Use larger bin count (100) to get smoother shape
plt.hist(sample, bins=100)
plt.title("Emperor Penguin Heights - Histogram", pad=20)
plt.xlabel("Height (inches)", labelpad=10)
plt.ylabel("Frequency", labelpad=10)
plt.show()
```

The generated values are indeed normally distributed! The heights of most penguins are clustered around the mean (40 inches). And the frequency decreases as the height gets farther from the mean in either direction.

## Probability of a Given Value Using `pdf()`

๐

Let’s say you want to find out:

What’s theprobabilitythat a randomly selected penguin will be 40 inches tall?

The method **pdf()** from the **norm** class can help us answer such questions. It returns the probabilities for specific values from a normal distribution. (**PDF** stands for **P**robability **D**ensity **F**unction)

Here’s how you can use **pdf()**:

```
# Find probability that a penguin is 40 inches tall
probability_40 = height_distribution.pdf(x=40)
probability_40.round(4)
```

```
0.0798
```

Thus, there’s a 7.98% chance that a randomly selected penguin is 40 inches tall.

## Density Curve Using `pdf()`

๐

A **density curve** is a graphical plot showing probabilities associated with different values of a variable. Let’s use **pdf()** to plot the density curve for the penguin heights.

First, we’ll pick 1,000 height measurements between 20 and 60 inches. We can do that using NumPy’s **linspace()**:

```
# load numpy
import numpy as np
# Get 1000 evenly spaced heights between
# 20 and 60 inches using numpy's linspace()
min_height = 20
max_height = 60
height_values = np.linspace(min_height, max_height, num=1000)
# print size, first 10 and last 10 values
print("Height Values Count: ", height_values.size)
print("Head: ", height_values[:10].round(2))
print("Tail: ", height_values[-10:].round(2))
```

```
Height Values Count: 1000
Head: [20. 20.04 20.08 20.12 20.16 20.2 20.24 20.28 20.32 20.36]
Tail: [59.64 59.68 59.72 59.76 59.8 59.84 59.88 59.92 59.96 60. ]
```

Next, get the probabilities for all the values using **pdf()**:

```
# Calculate probabilites using scipy.stats.norm.pdf()
probabilities = height_distribution.pdf(x=height_values)
```

Finally, plot the heights on the x-axis and the corresponding probabilities on the y-axis. That’ll give you the **density curve**:

```
# set graph size
plt.figure(figsize=(12, 6))
# plot density curve
# heights on x-axis and their probabilities on y-axis
plt.plot(height_values, probabilities)
# shade the area under the density curve
plt.fill_between(height_values, probabilities, alpha=0.2)
# Remove the dead space (both vertical and horizontal)
# that Matplotlib adds by default
axes = plt.gca()
axes.set_xlim([min_height, max_height])
ymin, ymax = axes.get_ylim()
axes.set_ylim([0, ymax])
# Add figure title, labels
plt.title("Emperor Penguin Heights - Density Curve", pad=20)
plt.xlabel("Height (inches)", labelpad=10)
plt.ylabel("Probability", labelpad=10)
plt.show()
```

As expected, we get a smooth **density curve** that follows the normal distribution.

## Find Percent Below a Value Using `cdf()`

๐

Suppose you want to know:

What percentage of emperor penguins are shorter than 44 inches?

To answer this, you’ll need to add the probabilities of all the heights shorter than 44 inches.

The **norm** method **cdf()** can help you do that. The method calculates the **proportion** of a normally distributed population **that is less than or equal to a given value**. (**CDF** stands for **C**umulative **D**istribution **F**unction).

Here’s how you can use **cdf()**:

```
# How many penguins are shorter than 44 inches?
below_44 = height_distribution.cdf(44)
below_44.round(4)
```

```
0.7881
```

Thus, 78.81% of all emperor penguins are shorter than 44 inches.

## Visualize Percent Below a Value ๐

As we saw above, the x-axis of the density plot has the **heights sorted in increasing order**. Let’s highlight the region where the height is shorter than 44 inches.

We can do that using Matplotlib’s **fill_between()** function:

```
# set graph size
plt.figure(figsize=(12, 6))
# plot density curve
plt.plot(height_values, probabilities)
# Shade the region where height <= 44 inches
shaded_region = (height_values <= 44)
plt.fill_between(height_values, probabilities, where=shaded_region)
# Remove the dead space
axes = plt.gca()
axes.set_xlim([min_height, max_height])
ymin, ymax = axes.get_ylim()
axes.set_ylim([0, ymax])
plt.title("Emperor Penguin Heights - Under 44 Inches", pad=20)
plt.xlabel("Height (inches)", labelpad=10)
plt.ylabel("Probability", labelpad=10)
plt.show()
```

The **shaded region represents the sum of probabilities of heights less than or equal** to 44 inches. We found this sum using the **cdf()** function in the last section. Thus, the shaded region covers 78.81% of the total **area under the density curve**.

## Calculate Percentile Using `ppf()`

๐

Let’s say you want to find the height that’ll make a penguin taller than 90% of all emperor penguins. Such a value would be the 90^{th} percentile for their height distribution.

In general, **the N ^{th} percentile is the value that is greater than the N percent of all data points**.

You can find the percentile using the **norm** **ppf()** method. (**PPF** stands for **P**ercent **P**oint **F**unction). Below code shows how to use **ppf()**:

```
# scipy.stats.norm.ppf() expects fraction as the input
# so pass 0.9 to find 90th percentile
percentile_90th = height_distribution.ppf(0.9)
percentile_90th.round(2)
```

```
46.41
```

Thus, 46.41 inches is the 90^{th} percentile height for emperor penguins.

## Summary ๐

This post helped you gain invaluable practical skills using **Python** and **SciPy**. Let’s do a quick recap of what you’ve learned:

- Create
**normal distributions**using the**norm**class from the**SciPy stats**module. - Generate random samples using the
**norm**method**rvs()**. - Calculate probabilities using
**pdf()**and**cdf()**. - Find percentiles using
**ppf()**. - Plot
**histogram**and**density curve**for normal distributions using**Matplotlib**and**Seaborn**.